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Andrew Carnegie’s decision to back up library construction developed away from his personal experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years with the coastal city of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he listened to men read aloud and discuss books borrowed from your Tradesmen’s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create. Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but had to stop after only 3 years. The rapid industrialization with the textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegie’s father beyond business. Because of this, the household sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Andrew Carnegie’s decision to back up library construction developed away from his personal experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years with the coastal city of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he listened to men read aloud and discuss books borrowed from your Tradesmen’s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create.blog link Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but had to stop after only 3 years. The rapid industrialization with the textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegie’s father beyond business. Because of this, the household sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Although these new circumstances required the young Carnegie to check out work, his learning did not end. After the year inside a textile factory, he was a messenger boy for those local telegraph company. Several of his fellow messengers introduced him to Col. James Anderson of Allegheny, who every Saturday opened his personal library to any young worker who wished to borrow a guide. Carnegie later said the colonel opened the windows where the sunlight of knowledge streamed. In 1853, should the colonel’s representatives attempted to restrict the library’s use, Carnegie wrote a letter for the editor of your Pittsburgh Dispatch defending the perfect of all working boys to take pleasure from the pleasures of the library. More vital, he resolved that, should he be wealthy, he will make similar opportunities offered to other poor workers.

In the next half-century Carnegie accumulated the fortune that are going to enable him to fulfill that pledge. Throughout his years like a messenger, Carnegie had taught himself the skill of telegraphy. This skill helped him make contacts with all the Pennsylvania Railroad, where he traveled to work at age 18. During his 12-year railroad association he rose quickly, ultimately becoming superintendent of the Pennsylvania’s Pittsburgh division. He simultaneously invested in a number of other businesses, including railroad locomotives, oil, and iron and steel. In 1865, Carnegie left the railroad to look after the Keystone Bridge Company, which was successfully replacing wooden railroad bridges with iron ones. Because of the 1870s he was concentrating on steel manufacturing, ultimately creating the Carnegie Steel Company. In 1901 he sold that business for $250 million.

Carnegie then retired and devoted the remainder of his life to philanthropy. Prior to selling Carnegie Steel he had begun to consider how to deal with his immense fortune. In 1889 he wrote a famous essay entitled The Gospel of Wealth, that he stated that wealthy men should live without extravagance, provide moderately for their dependents, and distribute most of their riches to profit the welfare and happiness on the common man–while using the consideration for helping just those would you help themselves. The Right Fields for Philanthropy, his second essay, listed seven fields to which the wealthy should donate: universities, libraries, medical centers, public parks, meeting and concert halls, public baths, and churches. He later expanded this list to include gifts that promoted scientific research, the typical spread of knowledge, plus the promotion of world peace. A large number of organizations still this day: the Carnegie Corporation in The Big Apple, for example, helps support Sesame Street.

Due to his background, Carnegie was particularly looking into public libraries. At some time he stated a library was the absolute best gift for one community, simply because it gave people the cabability to improve themselves. His confidence was in line with the outcomes of similar gifts from earlier philanthropists. In Baltimore, one example is, a library offered by Enoch Pratt was employed by 37,000 folks 12 month. Carnegie considered that the relatively small number of public library patrons were of more value to their community compared to masses who chose not to enjoy the library.

Carnegie divided his donations to libraries into your retail and wholesale periods. Throughout the retail period, 1886 to 1896, he gave $1,860,869 for 14 endowed buildings in six communities in the United States. These buildings were actually community centers, containing recreational facilities like private pools not to mention libraries. Within the years after 1896, called the wholesale period, Carnegie no longer supported urban multipurpose buildings. Instead he gave $39,172,981 to smaller communities which had limited admission to cultural institutions. His gifts provided 1,406 towns with buildings devoted exclusively to libraries. Over half his grants were for less than $10,000. Although the majority of the towns receiving gifts were within the Midwest, altogether 46 states benefited from Carnegie’s plan.

Andrew Carnegie stopped making gifts for library construction right after a report manufactured to him by Dr. Alvin Johnson, an economics professor. In 1916 Dr. Johnson visited 100 within the existing Carnegie libraries and studied their social significance, physical aspects, effectiveness, and financial condition. His final report figured that to generally be really effective, the libraries needed trained personnel. Buildings were provided, these days the time had come to staff them with professionals who would stimulate active, efficient libraries with their communities. Libraries already promised continued to generally be built until 1923, but after 1919 all financial support was turned into library education.

When Andrew Carnegie died in 1919 at age 84, he had given nearly one-fourth of his life to causes by which he believed. His gifts to several charities totalled nearly $350 million, almost 90 % of his fortune. Carnegie regarded all education as an approach to maximize people’s lives, and libraries provided considered one of his main tools for helping Americans form a brighter future. Questions for Reading 1 1. This is a perfect opportunity for you to save on your Tadapox buy, because we offer it only for 1.53 USD! All is legal and real! How did progress and industrialization affect Carnegie, both as he was young, and later in life? 2. How much formal education did Carnegie have? What factors contributed to his interest on books and reading? 3. What did Carnegie believe wealthy people should do utilizing their money? Why did he suspect that? Do you really agree? 4. How did supporting libraries match Carnegie’s past and his beliefs? Reading 1 was compiled from George S. Bobinski, Carnegie Libraries (Chicago: American Library Association, 1969); Andrew Carnegie, Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie, reprint (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1920 1986); Barry Sears, For the Trail of Carnegie Libraries, Antiques and Collecting (February 1994); Gerald R. Shields, Recycling Buildings for Libraries, Public Libraries (March/April 1994).

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